Additional educational material covering a breadth of neurological subjects
Neuroanatomy : The Human Brain
For more information : http://neuromatiq.net For the specific article about the brain : http://neuromatiq.net/en/chapters/2-anatomy/05-the-brain.html Please : Like, comment, share, subscribe, comment on the web specific page, and you can contribute by either correcting the missing English translations, or translate some articles to a language you master, I can make videos with your sound recordings and credit you for that :). The human forebrain is made of two hemispheres almost symmetrical, left and right. And a diencephalon, a medial and single part that includes the thalamus and the hypothalamus. The two cerebral hemispheres are connected by commissural pathways, the biggest is the corpus callosum with more than 200 million fibers crossing from one side to the other. Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into two distinct regions: a peripheral part, the cortex "gray matter" containing the bodies of nerve cells, and a central part, made of white matter that contains axonal extension of neurons and their myelin sheath. Each hemisphere is cut by deep fissures that define lobes. The first is the lateral sulcus or Sylvian fissure, where lies the middle cerebral artery, it separates the frontal lobe of the temporal lobe. The second is the central sulcus or fissure of Rolando, between the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe. The third sulcus is the parieto-occipital sulcus, separating the occipital lobe from the temporal and parietal lobes. In addition there is a fifth lobe, non visible on the surface: the lobe of the insula, found by removing the Sylvian fissure. In each lobe, there are less deep sulci that delimit the ridges on the cerebral cortex we call gyri.
Neuroanatomy - The Brainstem
Ultra High Definition video " 4K " For more information : http://neuromatiq.net For the specific article about the brainstem : http://neuromatiq.net/en/chapters/2-anatomy/03-the-brainstem.html The brainstem is the brain anatomical structure that links different parts of the central nervous system: the forebrain, the cerebellum and the spinal cord. The brainstem plays a vital role in the many essential functions that its nuclei regulate, such as breathing and heart rate and even Consciousness. It is also a passageway to sensory and motor pathways, and a pain control center. The brainstem represents the emergence area of most cranial nerves. We distinguish three parts of the brainstem "the midbrain, the pons and the medulla." The midbrain "or mesencephalon" is the area of the brainstem that is directly connected to the forebrain through the cerebral peduncles, behind these two peduncles, we find the tegmentum with a hole in back side : the cerebral aqueduct. Also known as the aqueduct of Sylvius, it connects the 3rd to the 4th ventricle. on the back of The midbrain is the tectum, with four colliculi (Also named corpora quadrigemina ), where lie the reflex centers involving hearing and vision. The Pons "AKA the pons Varolii" is the middle part of the brainstem. It plays an important role in motor functions with its relay position between the forebrain and the cerebellum, it also contributes to autonomous functions and facial sensitivity (it containes the core and the emergence of the trigeminal nerve). The Pons is connected to the cerebellum by the middle cerebellar peduncle. It delimits the front face of the 4th ventricle. The medulla oblongata is the portion of the brainstem between the pons and the spinal cord. The medulla contains the olivary and a pair of pyramids that contain the corticospinal fibers of the pyramidal tract. The medulla contains vital autonomic control centers for functions such as breathing, heart rate and Many reflex functions (vomiting, coughing, sneezing, and swallowing). It ends at the bottom by the pyramidal decussation: a crossing region of the corticospinal fibers.
Neuroanatomy: The Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF
For more information : http://neuromatiq.net For the specific article about the Cerebrospinal Fluid : http://neuromatiq.net/en/chapters/2-anatomy/06-cerebrospinal-fluid.html Please : Like, comment, share, subscribe, comment on the web specific page, and you can contribute by either correcting the missing English translations, or translate some articles to a language you master, I can make videos with your sound recordings for the language you master and credit you for that :). The cerebrospinal fluid or CSF is the liquid that bathes the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal cord). The CSF ensures: - The protection of the central nervous system against mechanical shocks and vibrations. - it plays an important role in the regulation of intracranial pressure. - It participates in the cerebral metabolic processes by regulating the exchange of substances. and, provides many other functions as well. The CSF circulates in two different compartments: - The first is the inner brain ependymal cavities or ventricles, - the second is the compartment surrounding the central nervous system, it corresponds to the sub-arachnoid space. The CSF is secreted by the choroid plexus: clusters of capillary blood vessels located in the ventricular system. The ventricular system consists of four ventricles connected by many channels. It is connected to the central canal of the spinal cord. There are two lateral ventricles, occupying the center of the cerebral hemispheres. Both are connected to the third ventricle at the center of the diencephalon by the foramina of Monro. The third ventricle is connected to the fourth ventricle in the brainstem by the aqueduct of Sylvius. The CSF will leave the fourth ventricle through the foramen of Magendie to fill the sub-arachnoid space between the pia mater and the arachnoid. The CSF is then absorbed at the top of the skull by the arachnoid granulations of Pakioni.
Neuroanatomy : Diencephalon, Thalamus & Hypothalamus
Covered by the two cerebral hemispheres, the diencephalon is the structure of the central nervous system that is at the center of the brain. It contains masses of gray matter such as the thalamus and the hypothalamus that play tremendous roles in the organism. The thalamus is a nuclear complex that occupies the most part of the diencephalon. It acts essentially as a relay to the vast majority of sensory inputs that go up to the cerebral cortex. It also plays a very important role in movements and emotions. The thalamus is made up of two masses of gray matter: right and left. each taking an ovoid shape. These two parts are often joined together in the center by the Interthalamic adhesion. The thalamus consists of multiple nuclei, each of these nuclei plays a very specific role the thalamus marks the lateral side of the third ventricle and it is surrounded on top and front by the body and the head of the 2 lateral ventricles. The hypothalamus; located directly below and in front of the thalamus is much smaller in size and volume nevertheless, its role in the body is not the least. In fact the hypothalamus contains several distinct nuclei that provide numerous functions including thermoregulation, Appetite and regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. It also plays a capital role in modulating the autonomic nervous system. The hypothalamus is the real endocrine engine of the whole body. It controls the secretions of the pituitary gland which produces the most important hormones of the body
Neuroanatomy - The Cerebellum
The cerebellum is a central nervous system organ located directly behind the brainstem. It occupies therewith the posterior cranial fossa below the cerebellar tentorium, The cerebellum is attached to the brainstem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles. "The Superior, The Middle and the Inferior cerebellar peduncle" The cerebellum contributes primarily to balance and motor coordination. The concentric grooves that marks the surface of the cerebellum give it a multi-foliated appearance. The cerebellum is divided into three main lobes: anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe. These lobes are subdivided into ten lobules by secondary grooves. The cerebellum contains a central region "median" called: the cerebellar vermis, and three Deep cerebellar nuclei : dentate, interposed and fastigii. The cerebellum shares many similarities with the forebrain: it has a peripheral cortex and Deep nuclei that contain the cell bodies of neurons, It has two hemispheres: right and left, and several grooves delimiting lobes. The fissures of the cerebellum are deeper than those of the forebrain. This expands the surface of the cerebellar cortex to almoast 75% of the cerebral cortex.
Touch Medical Media
Aksel Siva, AAN 2019 – Diagnosis and treatment of neuro-Behçet disease (Part 1)
US Neurology Editorial Board member, Aksel Siva (Istanbul University, Cerrahpaşa School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey), discusses the main clinical features and challenges in diagnosis of neuro-Behçet disease, a rare and relatively unknown neurological disorder. Questions 1. What are the current unmet needs in the diagnosis of neuro-Behçet disease? (0:04) 2. What are the main clinical features of neuro-Behçet disease? (1:45) Speaker disclosures: Aksel Siva has nothing to disclose in relation to this video interview. Filmed at the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, USA, May 2019.
Neuroanatomy - The spinal cord
4K ultra high definition video about the spinal cord. For more information : https://www.neuromatiq.net For the spinal cord specific chapter : http://neuromatiq.net/en/chapters/2-anatomy/02-the-spinal-cord.html The spinal cord is well protected within the spinal canal inside the spine. In adults, it measures approximately 42 cm for women and 45 cm for men. And it is at the origin of all 31 pairs of spinal nerves. The spinal cord, like the brain, is surrounded by the meninges membranes: the pia mater, the arachnoid mater and the dura mater. It's surrounded by the CSF, and has a rudimentary hole in the center (the central canal). Because of intrauterine faster growth of the spine, the nerve roots of the spinal nerves are offset relative to Inter-vertebral foramina they emerge from, That is why the spinal cord ends at the level of the second lumbar vertebra, although it gives nerves up to the fifth sacral vertebra and even the first coccyx vertebra. The Lumbar puncture for collecting CSF is usually done below the second lumbar vertebra, this prevents any injury to the spinal cord. The Spinal cord follows the path of the spine, and draws two curvatures: A Cervical with a posterior concavity (lordosis) and a dorso-lumbar with anterior concavity (kyphosis). It also has two enlargements : a cervical and a lumbar, this is due to the innervation of the upper and the lower limbs. The Spinal cord ends down with the medullary cone that gives rise to the Cauda equina (A cluster of lumbosacral nerve roots). On a cross section, the spinal cord has a central region: the gray matter which contains the neurons cell bodies, and a peripheral part: The white matter, it consists of the axonal extensions ant their myelin sheath. The gray matter has the the shape of a butterfly, with two anterior horns housing the motor neurons cell bodies and two posterior horns that receive sensory fibers. At the thoraco-lumbar level, there are also lateral horns, these hold the sympathetic fibers cell bodies. The white matter is organized into three pairs of funiculi (ventral, dorsal and lateral). The spinal cord is marked by some grooves on its surface : the deepest is the anterior median fissure (the groove in the ventral side), The posterior median sulcus is the groove in the dorsal side, The spinal cord has also two lateral grooves on each side, from which will emerge two pairs of nerve roots, a front root (for motor fibers) and the posterior root(for sensory fibers). These two nerve roots unite to form a spinal nerve on each side.
Touch Medical Media
Aksel Siva, AAN 2019 – Diagnosis and treatment of neuro-Behçet disease (Part 2)
US Neurology Editorial Board member, Aksel Siva (Istanbul University, Cerrahpaşa School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey), discusses latest initiatives in the diagnosis of neuro-Behçet disease, a rare and relatively unknown neurological disorder, as well as promising investigational therapies. Questions 1. How can MRI imaging parameters be used in the differential diagnosis of neuro-Behçet disease and other central nervous system inflammatory disorders? (0:04) 2. What are the limitations of current treatment options for neuro-Behçet disease? (3:17) 3. What investigational therapies appear most promising? (5:39) Speaker disclosures: Aksel Siva has nothing to disclose in relation to this video interview. Filmed at the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, USA, May 2019.
Brain and Cognition Discovery Foundation
Dr. Thomas L. Schwartz: Adult ADHD: Clinical Challenges and Treatment Options
Title: Adult ADHD: Clinical Challenges and Treatment Options Event: Do ADHD and Depression Mediate Risk of Obesity and Diabetes or Vice Versa? Perspectives on Bidirectional Associations. Fourth Annual Brain and Cognition Discovery Foundation Medical Conference Date: February 9, 2019 Speaker: Thomas L. Schwartz, MD Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY Check out our website for more www.bcdfoundation.ca